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Titre du document / Document title

Exposure to toxic elements via breast milk

Auteur(s) / Author(s)

OSKARSSON A. ; HALLEN I. P. ; SUNDBERG J. ;

Affiliation(s) du ou des auteurs / Author(s) Affiliation(s)

Swedish national food administration, toxicology div., Uppsala, SUEDE

Résumé / Abstract

Breast milk is the ideal nutrient for the newborn, but unfortunately also a route of excretion for some toxic substances. Very little attention has been paid to breast milk as a source of exposure to toxic elements. The dose-dependent excretion in breast milk and the uptake in the neonate of inorganic mercury, methylmercury and lead were studied in an experimental model for rats and mice.The transfer of mercuryfrom plasma to milk was found to be higher in dams exposed to inorganic mercury than to methylmercury. In contrast, the uptake of mercury from milk was higher in the sucklings of dams exposed to methylmercury than to inorganic mercury. Pre- and postnatal exposure to methylmercury resulted in increased numbers and altered proportions of the thymocyte subpopulation and increased lymphocyte activities in the offspring of mice and also effects on the levels of noradrenaline and nerve growth factor in the developing brain of rats. Mercury in blood and breast milk in lactating women in Sweden was studied in relation to the exposure to mercury from fish and amalgam. Law levels were found; the mean levels were 0.6 ng g-1 in milk and 2.3 ng g-1 in blood. There was a statistically significant correlation between mercury levels in blood and milk, showing that milk levels were approximately 30% of the levels in blood. Inorganic mercury exposure from amalgam was reflected in blood and milk mercury levels. Recent exposure to methylmercury from consumption of fish was reflected in mercury levels in the blood but not in milk. A high lactational transfer of lead was found in rats and mice. A linear correlation was found in the dams between lead in plasma and milk and between lead in milk and tissues of sucklings. It was also found that the bioavailability of lead in milk diets is dependent on thr casein content of milk. Thus, lead in human milk with a low casein content was absorbed more rapidly and to a higher extent in the sucklings than lead in rat milk with a high casein content. The excretion of lead in milk was also studied in cows after an episodr of lead intoxication. A curvilinear relationship between lead in blood and milk was found, with a sharp increase in lead levels in milk at blood lead levels above 200-300 μg kg-1. Lead levels in human breast milk and blood were studied in Sweden. The mean levels of lead were 0.8 μg l-1 in milk and 33 μg l-1 in blood. This can be compared with a reported mean value of 62 μg l-1 in milk from women living close to a smelter in Mexico. There was no correlation between lead levels in blood and milk in the Swedish study. However, significantly higher levels of lead in milk were found in women living close to a metal smelter as compared with women from a control area

Revue / Journal Title

Analyst    ISSN  0003-2654   CODEN ANALAO 

Source / Source

Congrès
International symposium on speciation of elements in toxicology and in environmental and biological sciences No2, Loen , NORVEGE (15/06/1994)
1995, vol. 120, no 3, pp. 583-763 (53 ref.), pp. 765-770

Langue / Language

Anglais

Editeur / Publisher

Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, ROYAUME-UNI  (1876) (Revue)

Mots-clés anglais / English Keywords

Lead

;

Mercury

;

Heavy metal

;

Toxicity

;

Newborn animal

;

Milk transfer

;

Breast milk

;

Elimination

;

Toxicokinetics

;

Rat

;

Mouse

;

Rodentia

;

Mammalia

;

Vertebrata

;

Mots-clés français / French Keywords

Plomb

;

Mercure

;

Métal lourd

;

Toxicité

;

Animal nouveau né

;

Passage lait

;

Lait maternel

;

Elimination

;

Toxicocinétique

;

Rat

;

Souris

;

Rodentia

;

Mammalia

;

Vertebrata

;

Mots-clés espagnols / Spanish Keywords

Plomo

;

Mercurio

;

Metal pesado

;

Toxicidad

;

Animal recién nacido

;

Paso leche

;

Leche materna

;

Eliminación

;

Toxicocinética

;

Rata

;

Ratón

;

Rodentia

;

Mammalia

;

Vertebrata

;

Localisation / Location

INIST-CNRS, Cote INIST : 1036, 35400005587390.0310

Nº notice refdoc (ud4) : 3472902



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