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Titre du document / Document title

Application of in vivo and in vitro mutation techniques for crop improvement

Auteur(s) / Author(s)

MALUSZYNSKI M. ; AHLOOWALIA B. S. ; SIGURBJÖRNSSON B. ;

Affiliation(s) du ou des auteurs / Author(s) Affiliation(s)

International atomic energy agency, joint FAO/IAEA div., Vienna, AUTRICHE

Résumé / Abstract

Conventional mutation techniques have often been used to improve yield, quality, disease and pest resistance in crops, or to increase the attractiveness of flowers and ornamental plants. More than 1700 mutant varieties involving 154 plant species have been officially released. In some economically important crops, e.g. barley, durum wheat and cotton, mutant varieties occupy the majority of cultivated areas in many countries. Mutation techniques have become one of the major tools in the breeding of ornamentals such as alstroemeria, begonia, chrysanthemum, carnation, dahlia and streptocarpus. The use of in vitro techniques such as anther culture, shoot organogenesis, somatic embryogenesis and protoplast fusion can overcome some of the limitations in the application of mutation techniques in both seed and vegetatively propagated crops. In vitro culture in combination with induced mutations can speed up breeding programmes, from the generation of variability, through selection, to multiplication of the desired genotypes. The expression of induced mutations in the pure homozygote obtained through microspore, anther or ovary culture, can enhance the rapid recovery of the desired traits. In some vegetatively propagated species, mutations in combination with in vitro culture technique, may be the only method of improving an existing cultivar. Currently, many molecular studies rely on the induction and identification of mutants in 'model species' for construction and subsequent saturation of genetic maps, understanding of developmental genetics and elucidation of biochemical pathways. Once identified and isolated, the genes that encode agronomically-important features can be either introduced directly into crop plants or used as probes to search for similar genes in crop species. It seems most likely that the recent developments based on these technologies will soon provide improved methods for selection of desired mutants.

Revue / Journal Title

Euphytica    ISSN  0014-2336   CODEN EUPHAA 

Source / Source

Congrès
EUCARPIA Genetic Manipulation in Plant Breeding Section. Meeting, Cork , IRLANDE (11/09/1994)
1995, vol. 85, no 1-3 (482 p.)  (2 p.1/4), [Notes: Selected papers], pp. 303-315

Langue / Language

Anglais

Editeur / Publisher

Springer, Dordrecht, PAYS-BAS  (1952) (Revue)

Mots-clés anglais / English Keywords

Review

;

Mutation

;

Mutagenesis

;

Genetic improvement

;

In vivo

;

Micropropagation

;

Somaclonal variation

;

Cultivated plant

;

Doubled haploid

;

Ploidy

;

Mots-clés français / French Keywords

Article synthèse

;

Mutation

;

Mutagenèse

;

Amélioration génétique

;

In vivo

;

Multiplication végétative in vitro

;

Variation somaclonale

;

Plante cultivée

;

Haploïde doublé

;

Ploïdie

;

Mots-clés espagnols / Spanish Keywords

Artículo síntesis

;

Mutación

;

Mutagénesis

;

Enriquecimiento genético

;

In vivo

;

Multiplicación vegetativa in vitro

;

Variación somaclonal

;

Planta cultivada

;

Haploide doble

;

Ploidía

;

Localisation / Location

INIST-CNRS, Cote INIST : 8245, 35400005895165.0360

Nº notice refdoc (ud4) : 2929484



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