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Titre du document / Document title

Human's Association with Water Bodies: The 'Exaggerated Diving Reflex' and its Relationship with the Evolutionary Allometry of Human Pelvic and Brain Sizes = Le lien entre l'Homme et les étendues d'eau : le réflexe de plongée excessif et sa relation avec l'allométrie évolutive du pelvis humain et la taille du cerveau

Auteur(s) / Author(s)

OPPENHEIMER S. (1) ;

Affiliation(s) du ou des auteurs / Author(s) Affiliation(s)

(1) Institute of Cognitive and Evolutionary Anthropology, School of Anthropology and Museum Ethnography, University of Oxford, ROYAUME-UNI

Résumé / Abstract

As Darwin suggested, humans first evolved in Africa, then quickly spread out. Occupation sites from the Palaeolithic to the present show a niche preference for proximity to water bodies, rivers, lakes and sea coasts. From 165 KYA there is clear evidence for shellfish use, with characteristic shell middens in littoral zones. Genetic phylo-geography for Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH) indicates there was a single definitive exit from near the Horn Africa about 70 KYA, moving, with extraordinary rapidity, along coastlines around the Indian Ocean to Bali, later to China and the Americas. They crossed the sea to New Guinea and Australia by 50 KYA. Although AMH were not the first humans to cross Wallace's Line, they were the first to make open-sea voyages of over 100 miles. Why are anatomically modem humans associated with water bodies? Is it to do with their daily need for fresh drinking water? Is there any special significance to their exploitation of the food they find there, or is it just making the best of their niche? What aspect of their past evolution explains their 'exaggerated mammalian diving reflex'? How is it connected with water? The pan-vertebrate reflex cardio-vascular response to extreme hypoxia has long been acknowledged as essential protection in terrestrial vertebrates against the risk of perinatal asphyxia as their milieu changes from aqueous to air. In spite of this role, 28% of annual worldwide human perinatal mortality still results from perinatal asphyxia. In spite of obstetric intervention, obstructed labour is still responsible for 11% of all maternal deaths. Such figures represent a critical evolutionary bottleneck. Homo brains have grown over 3 times in size over 2.5 MYA resulting in dangerous cephalo-pelvic disproportion (CPD). In response, the human fœtus shows several adaptations, including likely an 'exaggerated diving reflex'. Maternal adaptations include exaggerated pelvic sexual dimorphism (PSD). How has the recent decline in AMH stature affected CPD? Recent evidence suggests this may have paradoxically enhanced PSD, whilst maintaining our high Encephalisation Quotient (EQ) constant.

Revue / Journal Title

Human evolution    ISSN  0393-9375 

Source / Source

Congrès
'Human Evolution: Past, Present and Future' Symposium, London , ROYAUME-UNI (08/05/2013)
2013, vol. 28, no 3-4 (164 p.)  [Document : 34 p.] (4 p.1/4), [Notes: Selected papers (Part 1 of 2)], pp. 137-170 [34 page(s) (article)]

Langue / Language

Anglais

Editeur / Publisher

Pontecorboli, Firenze, ITALIE  (1986) (Revue)

Mots-clés anglais / English Keywords

Congress

;

Foetus

;

Anthropology

;

Allometry

;

Brain

;

Hominid

;

Fresh water

;

Migration

;

Africa

;

Mots-clés français / French Keywords

Réflexe de plongée

;

Pelvis

;

Evolution humaine

;

Congrès

;

Foetus

;

Anthropologie

;

Allométrie

;

Cerveau

;

Hominidé

;

Eau douce

;

Migration

;

Afrique

;

Mots-clés d'auteur / Author Keywords

anatomically modern humans

;

water bodies

;

Aquatic Ape Hypothesis

;

coastal migratory routes

;

exaggerated mammalian diving reflex

;

evolutionary allometry of human pelvic and brain sizes

;

Localisation / Location

INIST-CNRS, Cote INIST : 21710, 35400050162297.0010

Nº notice refdoc (ud4) : 28090543



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