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Titre du document / Document title

Determination of Noise Immission From Sound Sources Close to the Ears

Auteur(s) / Author(s)

HAMMERSHØI Dorte (1) ; MØLLER Henrik (1) ;

Affiliation(s) du ou des auteurs / Author(s) Affiliation(s)

(1) Acoustics, Department of Electronic Systems, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 7 B5, 9220 Aalborg, DANEMARK

Résumé / Abstract

When a sound exposure stems from a sound source that is close to the ear of the exposed person, the noise is described in terms of the free-field related or diffuse-field related sound pressure level, i.e. the level of a free or a diffuse-sound field that would result in the same exposure of the person's ear as that stemming from the close sound source. The at-ear sound exposure level is measured either by MIRE technique (microphones in real ears) or by a manikin, and the free-field related or diffuse-field related sound pressure levels are obtained by subtracting the free-field-front or the diffuse-field head-related transfer function (HRTF) expressed in dB. The use of either, the eardrum, the open entrance, or the blocked entrance as measurement point for the MIRE-technique is evaluated. The results are the same, wherever in the ear canal the measurements are made. There is good agreement between human HRTFs measured at different laboratories, and for eardrum, open-entrance and blocked entrance, standard HRTF data have been derived, which may be used instead of HRTFs measured for each subject. The resulting statistical uncertainty depends on the choice of measurement point, and whether individual or standard HRTF data are used. Generally, measurements at the blocked entrance are practical and produce results with low statistical uncertainty. The results from manikin-measurements do not agree well with results from humans (MIRE), when HRTFs from the actual manikin or from the manikin standards (IEC 60959 and ITU-T P.58) are used. A better agreement is obtained with HRTFs constructed by multiplying human blocked-entrance data with the transfer function of the standardized coupler for manikins. This method is therefore described (and data tabled) in ISO 11904-2. A comparison between humans, manikins, and the manikin standards suggest, that standards do not specify an average human and should be revised.

Revue / Journal Title

Acta acustica united with acustica    ISSN  1610-1928 

Source / Source

2008, vol. 94, no1, pp. 114-129 [16 page(s) (article)] (49 ref.)

Langue / Language

Anglais

Editeur / Publisher

Hirzel, Stuttgart, ALLEMAGNE  (2001) (Revue)

Mots-clés anglais / English Keywords

Uncertain system

;

ISO standard

;

Microphone

;

Statistical analysis

;

Probabilistic approach

;

Transfer function

;

Diffuse field

;

Human

;

Auditory canal

;

Tympanic organ

;

Middle ear

;

Head

;

Sound source

;

Noise pollution

;

Sound pressure level

;

Free field

;

Background noise

;

Mots-clés français / French Keywords

Système incertain

;

Norme ISO

;

Microphone

;

Analyse statistique

;

Approche probabiliste

;

Fonction transfert

;

Champ diffus

;

Homme

;

Conduit auditif

;

Organe tympanique

;

Oreille moyenne

;

Tête

;

Source sonore

;

Nuisance acoustique

;

Niveau pression acoustique

;

Champ libre

;

Bruit fond

;

Mots-clés espagnols / Spanish Keywords

Sistema incierto

;

Norma ISO

;

Micrófono

;

Análisis estadístico

;

Enfoque probabilista

;

Función traspaso

;

Campo difuso

;

Hombre

;

Conducto auditivo

;

Organo timpánico

;

Oido medio

;

Cabeza

;

Fuente sonora

;

Nocividad acústica

;

Nivel presión acústica

;

Campo libre

;

Ruido fondo

;

Localisation / Location

INIST-CNRS, Cote INIST : 6827, 35400018350083.0130

Nº notice refdoc (ud4) : 20057743



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