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Titre du document / Document title

The ecology of fear : Optimal foraging, game theory, and trophic interactions : The geographical ecology of mammals

Auteur(s) / Author(s)

BROWN J. S. (1) ; LAUNDRE J. W. (1) ; GURUNG M. (1) ;

Affiliation(s) du ou des auteurs / Author(s) Affiliation(s)

(1) Department of Biological Sciences, 845 West Taylor Street, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, ETATS-UNIS

Résumé / Abstract

Mammalian predator-prey systems are behaviorally sophisticated games of stealth and fear. But, traditional mass-action models of predator prey dynamics treat individuals as behaviorally unresponsive molecules in Brownian motion. Foraging theory should provide the conceptual framework to envision the interaction. But, current models of predator feeding behavior generally envision a clever predator consuming large numbers of sessile and behaviorally inert prey (e.g., kangaroo rats, Dipodomys, collecting seeds from food patches). Here, we extend foraging theory to consider a predator-prey game of stealth and fear and then embed this game into the modeling of predator-prey population dynamics. The melding of the prey and predator's optimal behaviors with their population and community-level consequences constitutes the ecology of fear. The ecology of fear identifies the endpoints of a continuum of N-driven (population size) versus μ-driven (fear) systems. In N-driven systems, the major direct dynamical feedback involves predators killing prey, whereas μ-driven systems involve the indirect effects from changes in fear levels and prey catchability. In μ-driven systems, prey respond to predators by becoming more vigilant or by moving away fi-om suspected predators. In this way, a predator (e.g., mountain lion, Puma concolor) depletes a food patch (e.g., local herd of mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus) by frightening prey rather than by actually killing prey. Behavior buffers the system: a reduction in predator numbers should rapidly engender less vigilant and more catchable prey. The ecology of fear explains why big fierce carnivores should be and can be rare. In carnivore systems, ignore the behavioral game at one's peril.

Revue / Journal Title

Journal of mammalogy    ISSN  0022-2372   CODEN JOMAAL 

Source / Source

1999, vol. 80, no2, pp. 385-399 (1 p.1/4)

Langue / Language

Anglais

Editeur / Publisher

Allen Press, Lawrence, KS, ETATS-UNIS  (1919) (Revue)

Mots-clés anglais / English Keywords

Predator prey relation

;

Population number

;

Foraging behavior

;

Fear

;

Vigilance

;

Escape behavior

;

Game theory

;

Population density

;

Felis concolor

;

Odocoileus hemionus

;

Feeding behavior

;

Population dynamics

;

Antipredator behavior

;

Fissipedia

;

Carnivora

;

Mammalia

;

Vertebrata

;

Artiodactyla

;

Ungulata

;

Mots-clés français / French Keywords

Relation prédateur proie

;

Effectif population

;

Comportement approvisionnement

;

Peur

;

Vigilance

;

Comportement fuite

;

Théorie jeu

;

Densité population

;

Felis concolor

;

Odocoileus hemionus

;

Felidae

;

Cervidae

;

Comportement alimentaire

;

Dynamique population

;

Comportement antiprédateur

;

Fissipedia

;

Carnivora

;

Mammalia

;

Vertebrata

;

Artiodactyla

;

Ungulata

;

Mots-clés espagnols / Spanish Keywords

Relación depredador presa

;

Recuento población

;

Conducta abastecimiento

;

Miedo

;

Vigilancia

;

Conducta huída

;

Teoría juego

;

Densidad población

;

Felis concolor

;

Odocoileus hemionus

;

Conducta alimenticia

;

Dinámica población

;

Conducta antidepredador

;

Fissipedia

;

Carnivora

;

Mammalia

;

Vertebrata

;

Artiodactyla

;

Ungulata

;

Localisation / Location

INIST-CNRS, Cote INIST : 3037, 35400008477185.0050

Nº notice refdoc (ud4) : 1786943



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