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Titre du document / Document title

Exocellular polysaccharides from cyanobacteria and their possible applications

Auteur(s) / Author(s)

DE PHILIPPIS R. (1) ; VINCENZINI M. (1) ;

Affiliation(s) du ou des auteurs / Author(s) Affiliation(s)

(1) Dipartimento di Scienze e A limentari e Microbiologiche, Università degli Studi di Firenze, and Centro di Studio dei Microrganismi Autotrofi, CNR. Piazzale delle Cascine 27, 50144 Florence, ITALIE

Résumé / Abstract

Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophic prokaryotes which include a large variety of species of widespread occurrence and with diverse morphological, physiological and biochemical properties. Many cyanobacteria are known to be able to synthesise outermost slimy investments and to release polysaccharidic material into the culture medium during cell growth. These released polysaccharides (RPSs), being easily recoverable from the culture medium, are attracting much interest in view of their possible uses in several industrial applications. In this paper, an overview of the current knowledge on both RPS-producing cyanobacterial strains (including the possible roles of the exopolysaccharides) and chemical characteristics of the cyanobacterial RPSs is given, with particular emphasis on RPS properties and possible industrial applications. On the whole, cyanobacterial RPSs are characterised by a great variety in both number (from two to 10) and type of constitutive monosaccharides (various arrangements of acidic and neutral sugars). Most polymers show an anionic nature due to the presence of uronic acids and/or other charged groups such as pyruvyl or sulfate. Polypeptide moieties as well as acetyl substituents have also sometimes been found, causing additional structural complexity. All the cyanobacterial RPSs so far tested showed a pseudoplastic behaviour, but with marked differences in both viscosity values and shear thinning. In terms of RPS production, the responses of cyanobacteria to changes of culture conditions appear strain-dependent. RPS productivities shown by some cyanobacteria are well comparable with those reported for other photosynthetic microorganisms proposed for polysaccharide production, but very low in comparison with those of heterotrophic microorganisms. Nevertheless, cyanobacteria may be regarded as a very abundant source of structurally diverse polysaccharides, some of which may possess unique properties for special applications, not fulfilled by the polymers currently available. However, much work has still to be done to bridge the wide gap existing between data on the biology of the RPS-producer strains and information concerning technological and other useful properties of the cyanobacterial RPS.

Revue / Journal Title

FEMS microbiology reviews    ISSN  0168-6445 

Source / Source

1998, vol. 22, no3, pp. 151-175 (129 ref.)

Langue / Language

Anglais

Editeur / Publisher

Blackwell, Oxford, ROYAUME-UNI  (1985) (Revue)

Mots-clés anglais / English Keywords

Cyanobacteria

;

Polysaccharide

;

Extracellular

;

Composition

;

Biosynthesis

;

Application

;

Review

;

Bacteria

;

Biopolymer

;

Mots-clés français / French Keywords

Cyanobacteria

;

Polyoside

;

Extracellulaire

;

Composition

;

Biosynthèse

;

Application

;

Article synthèse

;

Bactérie

;

Biopolymère

;

Mots-clés espagnols / Spanish Keywords

Cyanobacteria

;

Poliósido

;

Extracelular

;

Composicion

;

Biosíntesis

;

Aplicación

;

Artículo síntesis

;

Bacteria

;

Biopolímero

;

Localisation / Location

INIST-CNRS, Cote INIST : 17567 D, 35400008340490.0020

Nº notice refdoc (ud4) : 1786860



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