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Titre du document / Document title

Obesity, voracity, and short stature : the impact of glutamate on the regulation of appetite

Auteur(s) / Author(s)

HERMANUSSEN M. (1) ; GARCIA A. P. (2) ; SUNDER M. (3) ; VOIGT M. (4) ; SALAZAR V. (2) ; TRESGUERRES J. A. F. (2) ;

Affiliation(s) du ou des auteurs / Author(s) Affiliation(s)

(1) Aschauhof, Altenhof, ALLEMAGNE
(2) Department of Physiology Medical School, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, ESPAGNE
(3) Volkswirtschaftliches Institute, Ludwig-Maximilian University, Munich, ALLEMAGNE
(4) Department Neonatology and Paediatric Intensive Care, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University, Zentrum für Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, Greifswald, ALLEMAGNE

Résumé / Abstract

Background: World-wide obesity has risen to alarming levels. We present experimental support for a new and very challenging hypothesis linking obesity, voracity, and growth hormone (GH) deficiency, to the consumption of elevated amounts of the amino-acid glutamate (GLU). Supraphysiological doses of GLU are toxic for neuronal cells. Methods: Human data were obtained from 807592 German conscripts born between 1974 and 1978, and from 1 432 368 women of the German birth statistics (deutsche Perinatalerhebung) 1995-1997. The effects of orally administered monosodium glutamate (MSG) were investigated in 30 pregnant Wistar rats and their offspring. Pregnant animals either received no extra MSG, or 2.5 g MSG, or 5 g MSG per day, up to the end of the weaning period. In all, 2.5 g, respectively 5 g, MSG accounted for some 10%, respectively 20%, of dry weight of the average daily food ration. After weaning, MSG feeding was continued in the offspring. Findings: Morbid obesity associates with short stature. Average stature of conscripts progressively declines when body mass index increases above 38 kg/m2. Also morbidly obese young women are shorter than average though to a lesser extent than conscripts. Oral administration of MSG to pregnant rats affects birth weight of the offspring. Maternal feeding with 5 g MSG per day results in severe birth weight reduction (P<0.01). Weight increments remain subnormal when MSG feeding to the mothers is maintained during weaning (P<0.01). GH serum levels are affected in animals that received MSG during prenatal life via maternal feeding. Animals that are kept on high MSG diet (5 g MSG per day) continue to show serum GH levels that are as low or even lower than those of MSG injected animals (P<0.05), both at day 30 and at day 90 of life. Animals that were kept on medium MSG diet (2.5 g MSG per day) showed low serum GH levels at day 30 of life (P<0.01), but seemed to partially recover before day 90. Almost identical results were observed in IGF-1 serum levels. Oral MSG resulted in dose dependent voracity. The animals fed 5 g MSG per day increased water uptake by threefold (P<0.01), and food uptake by almost two-fold (P<0.01). The influence of MSG is in general more marked in males than in females. Interpretation: GLU is a widely used nutritional substance that potentially exhibits significant neuronal toxicity. Voracity, and impaired GH secretion are the two major characteristics of parenterally administered GLU-induced neuronal damage. GLU maintains its toxicity in animals even when administered orally. Males appear to be more sensitive than females. The present study for the first time demonstrates, that a widely used nutritional monosubstance - the flavouring agent MSG - at concentrations that only slightly surpass those found in everyday human food, exhibits significant potential for damaging the hypothalamic regulation of appetite, and thereby determines the propensity of world-wide obesity. We suggest to reconsider the recommended daily allowances of amino acids and nutritional protein, and to abstain from the popular protein-rich diets, and particularly from adding the flavouring agents MSG.

Revue / Journal Title

European journal of clinical nutrition    ISSN  0954-3007 

Source / Source

2006, vol. 60, no1, pp. 25-31 [7 page(s) (article)] (38 ref.)

Langue / Language

Anglais

Editeur / Publisher

Nature Publishing Group, Basingstoke, ROYAUME-UNI  (1988) (Revue)

Mots-clés anglais / English Keywords

Central nervous system

;

Hypothalamus

;

Encephalon

;

Neurotransmitter

;

Excitatory aminoacid

;

Nutrition disorder

;

Nutritional status

;

Nutrition

;

Arcuate nucleus

;

Appetite

;

Regulation

;

Regulation(control)

;

Glutamate

;

Growth retardation

;

Obesity

;

Mots-clés français / French Keywords

Système nerveux central

;

Hypothalamus

;

Encéphale

;

Neurotransmetteur

;

Aminoacide excitateur

;

Trouble nutrition

;

Etat nutritionnel

;

Nutrition

;

Noyau arqué

;

Appétit

;

Réglementation

;

Régulation

;

Glutamate

;

Retard staturopondéral

;

Obésité

;

Mots-clés espagnols / Spanish Keywords

Sistema nervioso central

;

Hipotálamo

;

Encéfalo

;

Neurotransmisor

;

Aminoácido excitador

;

Trastorno nutricíon

;

Estado nutricional

;

Nutrición

;

Núcleo arqueado

;

Apetito

;

Reglamentación

;

Regulación

;

Glutamato

;

Retraso pondoestatural

;

Obesidad

;

Mots-clés d'auteur / Author Keywords

obesity

;

voracity

;

short stature

;

glutamate

;

arcuate nucleus

;

Localisation / Location

INIST-CNRS, Cote INIST : 18249, 35400013304424.0040

Nº notice refdoc (ud4) : 17547455



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