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Titre du document / Document title

Apple orchard productivity and fruit quality under organic, conventional, and integrated management

Auteur(s) / Author(s)

PECK Gregory M. (1) ; ANDREWS Preston K. (1) ; REGANOLD John P. (2) ; FELLMAN John K. (1) ;

Affiliation(s) du ou des auteurs / Author(s) Affiliation(s)

(1) Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6414, ETATS-UNIS
(2) Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6420, ETATS-UNIS

Résumé / Abstract

Located on a 20-ha commercial apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchard in the Yakima Valley, Washington, a 1.7-ha study area was planted with apple trees in 1994 in a randomized complete block design with four replications of three treatments: organic (ORG), conventional (CON), and integrated (INT). Soil classification, rootstock, cultivar, plant age, and all other conditions except management were the same on all plots. In years 9 (2002) and 10 (2003) of this study, we compared the orchard productivity and fruit quality of 'Galaxy Gala' apples. Measurements of crop yield, yield efficiency, crop load, average fruit weight, tree growth, color grades, and weight distributions of marketable fruit, percentages of unmarketable fruit, classifications of unmarketable fruit, as well as leaf, fruit, and soil mineral concentrations, were used to evaluate orchard productivity. Apple fruit quality was assessed at harvest and after refrigerated (0 to 1 °C) storage for three months in regular atmosphere (ambient oxygen levels) and for three and six months in controlled atmosphere (1.5% to 2% oxygen). Fruit internal ethylene concentrations and evolution, fruit respiration, flesh firmness, soluble solids concentration (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), purgeable volatile production, sensory panels, and total antioxidant activity (TAA) were used to evaluate fruit quality. ORG crop yields were two-thirds of the CON and about half of the INT yields in 2002, but about one-third greater than either system in 2003. High ORG yields in 2003 resulted in smaller ORG fruit. Inconsistent ORG yields were probably the result of several factors, including unsatisfactory crop load management, higher pest and weed pressures, lower leaf and fruit tissue nitrogen, and deficient leaf tissue zinc concentrations. Despite production difficulties, ORG apples had 6 to 10 N higher flesh firmness than CON, and 4 to 7 N higher than INT apples, for similar-sized fruit. Consumer panels tended to rate ORG and INT apples to have equal or better overall acceptability, firmness, and texture than CON apples. Neither laboratory measurements nor sensory evaluations detected differences in SSC, TA, or the SSC to TA ratio. Consumers were unable to discern the higher concentrations of flavor volatiles found in CON apples. For a 200 g fruit, ORG apples contained 10% to 15% more TAA than CON apples and 8% to 25% more TAA than INT apples. Across most parameters measured in this study, the CON and INT farm management systems were more similar to each other than either was to the ORG system. The production challenges associated with low-input organic apple farming systems are discussed. Despite limited technologies and products for organic apple production, the ORG apples in our study showed improvements in some fruit quality attributes that could aid their marketability.

Revue / Journal Title

HortScience    ISSN  0018-5345   CODEN HJHSAR 

Source / Source

2006, vol. 41, no1, pp. 99-107 [9 page(s) (article)] (1 p.1/4)

Langue / Language

Anglais

Editeur / Publisher

American Society for Horticultural Science, Alexandria, VA, ETATS-UNIS  (1966) (Revue)

Mots-clés anglais / English Keywords

Chemical properties

;

Organoleptic properties

;

Fruit crop

;

Fruit tree

;

Spermatophyta

;

Angiospermae

;

Dicotyledones

;

Rosaceae

;

Soluble solids

;

Acceptability

;

Shelf life

;

Chemical concentration

;

Firmness

;

Antioxidant

;

Volatile compound

;

Malus domestica

;

Flavor

;

Controlled atmosphere

;

Consumer behavior

;

Acceptance

;

Integrated management

;

Fruit

;

Production quality

;

Productivity

;

Orchard

;

Mots-clés français / French Keywords

Propriété chimique

;

Propriété organoleptique

;

Plante fruitière

;

Arbre fruitier

;

Spermatophyta

;

Angiospermae

;

Dicotyledones

;

Rosaceae

;

Extrait sec soluble

;

Acceptabilité

;

Durée conservation

;

Concentration chimique

;

Fermeté

;

Antioxydant

;

Composé volatil

;

Malus domestica

;

Flaveur

;

Atmosphère contrôlée

;

Comportement consommateur

;

Acceptation

;

Gestion intégrée

;

Fruit

;

Qualité production

;

Productivité

;

Verger

;

Mots-clés espagnols / Spanish Keywords

Propiedad química

;

Propiedad organoléptica

;

Planta frutal

;

Arbol frutal

;

Spermatophyta

;

Angiospermae

;

Dicotyledones

;

Rosaceae

;

Aceptabilidad

;

Tiempo conservación

;

Concentración química

;

Firmeza

;

Antioxidante

;

Compuesto volátil

;

Malus domestica

;

Flavor

;

Atmósfera controlada

;

Comportamiento consumidor

;

Aceptación

;

Gestión integrada

;

Fruto

;

Calidad producción

;

Productividad

;

Huerto

;

Mots-clés d'auteur / Author Keywords

consumer acceptability

;

controlled atmosphere

;

flavor volatiles

;

flesh firmness

;

Malus domestica

;

nutrient concentration

;

shelf life; soluble solids concentration

;

titratable acidity

;

total antioxidant activity

;

Localisation / Location

INIST-CNRS, Cote INIST : 13300, 35400013324190.0250

Nº notice refdoc (ud4) : 17447583



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