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Titre du document / Document title

Maisfeld, Affe und Opfertod: Ein spätnascazeitliches Textil des Linden-Museums Stuttgart = Corn field, Monkey and death: A Nasca textile of the Linden-Museum StuttgartChamp de maïs, singe et mort : un textile nasca du Linden-Museum de Stuttgart

Auteur(s) / Author(s)

CLADOS Christiane (1) ;

Affiliation(s) du ou des auteurs / Author(s) Affiliation(s)

(1) University of Wisconsin-Madison, 5240 Social Science, 1180 Observatory Dr, Madison, WI 53706, ETATS-UNIS

Résumé / Abstract

This article is an anlysis of an extraordinary Nasca textile of the Ancient Americas collection of the Linden-Museum Stuttgart, inv.-no. 119.196 (Fig. 1). The textile whose design was probably produced by more than one needler consists of a black ground weaving with embroidered decoration in dark and light yellow covering completely the surface of the textile. The dimensions of the textile resemble those of a "manto", a coatlike garment of the former Paracas culture. The overall decoration of the textile of the Linden-Museum follows principles of a specific type of a Paracas manto done in the so-called block color style. Those garments generally show a checkerboard-like design consisting of blocks with the representation of complex figures that alterates with those without any representations. In contrast to a Paracas manto the presented textile shows a continuing sequence of blocks with figural representations (Fig. 3).Two basic motifs can be identified. Motif A shows a scene including five figures, all very prominent figures of the Nasca pantheon (Fig. 4). Figure A can be identified as a "fat" version of the so-called Harvester, a mythical being that is typical for representations on ceramics of the Nasca 5-7 phases (Fig. 5). In contrast to the traditional (skinny) Harvester. Fat Harvesters generally are characterized by a tall body dressed with a tunic that is covered with cultigens (Fig. 7). Figure A of the textile shows a body with plants growing out of it as Fat Harvesters do also have in scenes on ceramics of the Phases Nasca 5-7 (Fig. 8). Figure A is adorned with a diadem and depicted in a sitting position. The legs are not visible and covered by the tunic. Because of the cultigens growing out of the body the author offers an interpretation of figure A (and fat harvesters en general) as a personification of the field and the rich harvest itself. At the base of figure A a bird can be seen (Fig. 11). On ceramics birds like the one on the textile are often connected with the Fat Harvester and can be identified as loros, small-sized macaws, that appear year by year when the harvest on field is starting (Fig. 12). In front of figure A a ritual is going on including figures B. C. D and E. Figure E can be identified as warrior wearing a conical helmet and a fox skin on the back (Fig. 20). Interpreted as a gesture of physical conflict and capture he is grabbing a naked person, figure D, that is lying on the ground. Because of being grabbed by a warrior and being undressed figure D is identified as war captive and sacrifice victim (Fig. 22). Hairdoo and body gesture of figure D both are characteristic of men and woman in Nasca iconography. A second sacrifice victim, figure C, is lying beside figure D grabbing its hair (Fig. 27). Figure C and D can be compared with a prominent theme presented on ceramics of the Late Nasca time that depicts two sacrifice victims grabbing the hair of each other (Fig. 28). In complex scenes on ceramics pairs of sacrifice victims are part of rituals including the consume of corn beer (chicha) (Fig. 29, Fig. 30). Following results got out of the analysis of complex scenes on ceramics figures C and D can be interpreted as war captives sacrificed in a chicha ritual that is based on a dualistic concept and is to secure a rich field harvest. Finally figure B is identified as Mythical Monkey, a monkey character that is typical for the Late Nasca and Early Wari times (Nasca 5-9) (Fig. 13). On ceramics of the Late Nasca time the Mythical Monkey generally is characterized by its elonged snout, a horizontally benched body, a rolled tail and a helmet with feather tufts. Known as "thumbed animal" on early Wari ceramics, the Mythical Monkey of the Late Nasca ceramics often carries feathered speers and trophy heads. (Fig. 18, Fig. 19). It clearly is connected with the principle of war and normally appears in scenes depicting warriors and battlefields (Fig. 17). Figure B on the textile attends the chicha ritual c

Revue / Journal Title

Tribus    ISSN  0082-6413 

Source / Source

2005, vol. 54, pp. 71-88 [18 page(s) (article)] (1 p.1/4)

Langue / Language

Allemand
Revue : Allemand

Editeur / Publisher

Linden-Museum, Staatliches Museum für Völkerkunde, Stuttgart, ALLEMAGNE  (1951) (Revue)

Mots-clés anglais / English Keywords

America

;

Peru

;

Precolombian

;

Nazca Culture

;

Ritual

;

Monkey

;

Maize

;

Pantheon

;

Divinity

;

Representation

;

Embroidery

;

Textile

;

Mots-clés français / French Keywords

Amérique

;

Stuttgart

;

Musée Linden

;

Moissonneur

;

Intermédiaire ancien

;

Andes

;

Pérou

;

Précolombien

;

Culture Nazca

;

Rituel

;

Singe

;

Maïs

;

Panthéon

;

Divinité

;

Représentation

;

Broderie

;

Textile

;

Localisation / Location

INIST-CNRS, Cote INIST : 23409, 35400013163523.0020

Nº notice refdoc (ud4) : 17239943



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