RefDoc
Haut

Faire une nouvelle recherche
Make a new search
Lancer la recherche


Titre du document / Document title

Lignin esters for use in unsaturated thermosets : Lignin modification and solubility modeling

Auteur(s) / Author(s)

THIELEMANS Wim (1) ; WOOL Richard P. (1) ;

Affiliation(s) du ou des auteurs / Author(s) Affiliation(s)

(1) Department of Chemical Engineering and Center for Composite Materials, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, ETATS-UNIS

Résumé / Abstract

Kraft lignins from hardwood and softwood were esterified with several anhydrides to alter their solubility behavior in nonpolar solvents, such as styrene-containing thermoset resins. The esterification reaction was facile, it reduced the amount of waste products, and can be readily scaled up. Increasing the carbon chain length on the ester group improved the solubility of kraft lignin in nonpolar solvents, with butyrated lignin being completely soluble in styrene. Esterification with unsaturated groups such as methacrylic anhydride, improved the solubility to a lesser extent than the saturated analogues. The solubility behavior of the modified lignin was described using the Flory-Huggins solubility theory, combined with the predictive method of Hoy. The main goal to obtain a styrene soluble kraft lignin that could be used in unsaturated polyesters and vinyl esters was achieved with fully butyrated kraft lignin and a butyrated/methacrylated kraft lignin. The solubility of the latter is governed by the butyrate/methacrylate ratio. The reaction rate constants for the butyration and methacrylation reactions were also determined and the aromatic hydroxyl groups were found to be consistently three times more reactive than the aliphatic ones.

Revue / Journal Title

Biomacromolecules    ISSN  1525-7797 

Source / Source

2005, vol. 6, no4, pp. 1895-1905 [11 page(s) (article)] (86 ref.)

Langue / Language

Anglais

Editeur / Publisher

American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, ETATS-UNIS  (2000) (Revue)

Mots-clés anglais / English Keywords

Experimental study

;

Solubility parameter

;

Interaction parameter

;

Thermodynamic model

;

Modeling

;

Substituent effect

;

Organic solvent

;

Solubility

;

Rate constant

;

Kinetics

;

Organic anhydride

;

Lignin

;

Esterification

;

Chemical modification

;

Preparation

;

Lignin derivatives

;

Mots-clés français / French Keywords

Lignine ester

;

Etude expérimentale

;

Paramètre solubilité

;

Paramètre interaction

;

Modèle thermodynamique

;

Modélisation

;

Effet substituant

;

Solvant organique

;

Solubilité

;

Constante vitesse

;

Cinétique

;

Anhydride organique

;

Lignine

;

Estérification

;

Modification chimique

;

Préparation

;

Lignine dérivé

;

Mots-clés espagnols / Spanish Keywords

Estudio experimental

;

Parámetro solubilidad

;

Parámetro interacción

;

Modelo termodinámico

;

Modelización

;

Efecto sustituyente

;

Solvente orgánico

;

Solubilidad

;

Constante velocidad

;

Cinética

;

Anhídrido orgánico

;

Lignina

;

Esterificación

;

Modificación química

;

Preparación

;

Lignina derivada

;

Localisation / Location

INIST-CNRS, Cote INIST : 27371, 35400013858619.0140

Nº notice refdoc (ud4) : 16960451



Faire une nouvelle recherche
Make a new search
Lancer la recherche
Bas