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Titre du document / Document title

Exploring item and higher order factor structure with the schmid-leiman solution : Syntax codes for SPSS and SAS

Auteur(s) / Author(s)

WOLFF Hans-Georg (1) ; PREISING Katja (1) ;

Affiliation(s) du ou des auteurs / Author(s) Affiliation(s)

(1) University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Nürnberg, ALLEMAGNE

Résumé / Abstract

To ease the interpretation of higher order factor analysis, the direct relationships between variables and higher order factors may be calculated by the Schmid-Leiman solution (SLS; Schmid & Leiman, 1957). This simple transformation of higher order factor analysis orthogonalizes first-order and higher order factors and thereby allows the interpretation of the relative impact of factor levels on variables. The Schmid-Leiman solution may also be used to facilitate theorizing and scale development. The rationale for the procedure is presented, supplemented by syntax codes for SPSS and SAS, since the transformation is not part of most statistical programs. Syntax codes may also be downloaded from

Revue / Journal Title

Behavior research methods, instruments & computers    ISSN  0743-3808   CODEN BRMCEW 

Source / Source

2005, vol. 37, no1, pp. 48-58 [11 page(s) (article)] (27 ref.)

Langue / Language


Editeur / Publisher

Psychonomic Society, Austin, TX, ETATS-UNIS  (1984-2004) (Revue)

Mots-clés anglais / English Keywords



Statistical method


Computer program


Factor analysis


Mots-clés français / French Keywords



Méthode statistique


Programme ordinateur


Analyse factorielle


Mots-clés espagnols / Spanish Keywords



Método estadístico


Programa informático


Análisis factorial


Localisation / Location

INIST-CNRS, Cote INIST : 16033, 35400013813507.0050

Nº notice refdoc (ud4) : 16877522

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