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Titre du document / Document title

Seasonal movements, migratory behavior, and site fidelity of West Indian manatees along the Atlantic coast of the United States

Auteur(s) / Author(s)

DEUTSCH Charles J. (1 2) ; REID James P. (2) ; BONDE Robert K. (2) ; EASTON Dean E. (2) ; KOCHMAN Howard I. (2) ; O'SHEA Thomas J. (3) ;

Affiliation(s) du ou des auteurs / Author(s) Affiliation(s)

(1) Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida, and Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, U.S. Geological Survey, P.O. Box 110450, Gainesville, FL 32611, ETATS-UNIS
(2) Florida Caribbean Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, 412 N.E. 16th Avenue, Room 250, Gainesville, FL 32601, ETATS-UNIS
(3) Midcontinent Ecological Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, 4512 McMurry Avenue, Ft., Collins, CO 80525, ETATS-UNIS

Résumé / Abstract

The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is endangered by human activities throughout its range, including the U.S. Atlantic coast where habitat degradation from coastal development and manatee deaths from watercraft collisions have been particularly severe. We radio-tagged and tracked 78 manatees along the east coast of Florida and Georgia over a 12-year period (1986-1998). Our goals were to characterize the seasonal movements, migratory behavior, and site fidelity of manatees in this region in order to provide information for the development of effective conservation strategies. Most study animals were tracked remotely with the Argos satellite system, which yielded a mean (SD) of 3.7 (1.6) locations per day; all were regularly tracked in the field using conventional radiotelemetry methods. The combined data collection effort yielded >93,000 locations over nearly 32,000 tag-days. The median duration of tracking was 8.3 months per individual, but numerous manatees were tracked over multiple years (max = 6.8 years). Most manatees migrated seasonally over large distances between a northerly warm-season range and a southerly winter range (median one-way distance = 280 km, max = 830 km), but 12% of individuals were resident in a relatively small area (<50 km) year-round. The movements of one adult male spanned >2,300 km of coastline between southeastern Florida and Rhode Island. No study animals journeyed to the Gulf coast of Florida. Regions heavily utilized by tagged manatees included: Fernandina Beach, FL to Brunswick, GA in the warm season; northern Biscayne Bay to Port Everglades, FL in the winter; and central coastal Florida, especially the Banana River and northern Indian River lagoons, in all seasons. Daily travel rate, defined as the distance between successive mean daily locations, averaged 2.5 km (SD = 1.7), but this varied with season, migratory pattern, and sex. Adult males traveled a significantly greater distance per day than did adult females for most of the warm season, which corresponded closely with the principal period of breeding activity, but there was no difference between the sexes in daily travel rate during the winter. The timing of seasonal migrations differed markedly between geographic regions. Most long-distance movements in the southern half of the study area occurred between November and March in response to changing temperatures, whereas most migrations in the northern region took place during the warmer, non-winter months. Manatees left their warm-season range in central Florida in response to cold fronts that dropped water temperatures by an average of 2.0°C over the 24-hr period preceding departure. Water temperature at departure from the warm-season range averaged 19°C, but varied among individuals (16-22°C) and was not related to body size or female reproductive status. The presence of industrial warm-water effluents permitted many manatees to overwinter north of their historic winter range, and for some migrants this delayed autumn migrations and facilitated earlier spring migrations. Southward autumn and northward spring migrations lasted an average of 10 and 15 days at mean rates of 33.5 (SD = 7.6) and 27.3 (SD = 10.5) km/day, respectively. The highest rate of travel during migration was 87 km/day (3.6 km/hr) during winter.

Revue / Journal Title

Wildlife monographs    ISSN  0084-0173   CODEN WLMOAF 

Source / Source

2003, vol. 151, pp. 1-77 [77 page(s) (article)] (6 p.1/4)

Langue / Language

Anglais

Editeur / Publisher

Wildlife Society, Bethesda, MD, ETATS-UNIS  (1958) (Revue)

Mots-clés anglais / English Keywords

Vertebrata

;

Mammalia

;

Sirenia

;

Animal conservation

;

Animal migration

;

Marine environment

;

Thermal factor

;

Environmental factor

;

America

;

North America

;

United States

;

Trichechus manatus

;

Georgia

;

Florida

;

West Atlantic

;

Endangered species

;

Seasonal variation

;

Migration route

;

Radiotelemetry

;

Satellite observation

;

Temperature effect

;

Animal active movement

;

Philopatry

;

Fidelity

;

Behavior

;

Migratory

;

Mots-clés français / French Keywords

Trichechidae

;

Vertebrata

;

Mammalia

;

Sirenia

;

Protection faune

;

Migration animale

;

Milieu marin

;

Facteur thermique

;

Facteur milieu

;

Amérique

;

Amérique du Nord

;

Etats Unis

;

Trichechus manatus latirostris

;

Trichechus manatus

;

Géorgie

;

Floride

;

Océan Atlantique Ouest

;

Espèce menacée

;

Variation saisonnière

;

Voie migration

;

Radiotélémétrie

;

Observation par satellite

;

Effet température

;

Déplacement actif animal

;

Philopatrie

;

Fidélité

;

Comportement

;

Migrateur

;

Mots-clés espagnols / Spanish Keywords

Vertebrata

;

Mammalia

;

Sirenia

;

Protección fauna

;

Migración animal

;

Medio marino

;

Factor térmico

;

Factor medio

;

America

;

America del norte

;

Estados Unidos

;

Trichechus manatus

;

Georgia

;

Florida

;

Oceáno Atlántico Oeste

;

Especie amenazada

;

Variación estacional

;

Vía migratoria

;

Radiotelemetría

;

Observación por satélite

;

Efecto temperatura

;

Desplazamiento activo animal

;

Filopatría

;

Fidelidad

;

Conducta

;

Migratorio

;

Mots-clés d'auteur / Author Keywords

Argos

;

Florida

;

Georgia

;

migration

;

natal philopatry

;

radio-tracking

;

satellite telemetry

;

seasonal movements

;

site fidelity

;

temperature effects

;

Trichechus manatus latirostris

;

West Indian manatee

;

Localisation / Location

INIST-CNRS, Cote INIST : 3369 B, 35400010398247.0010

Nº notice refdoc (ud4) : 14600249



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