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Titre du document / Document title

Grazing intensity and the diversity of grasshoppers, butterflies, and trap-nesting bees and wasps

Auteur(s) / Author(s)

KRUESS Andreas (1) ; TSCHARNTKE Teja (1) ;

Affiliation(s) du ou des auteurs / Author(s) Affiliation(s)

(1) Agroecology, Georg-August University, Waldweg 26, 37075 Göttingen, ALLEMAGNE

Résumé / Abstract

The maintenance of grasslands as distinct habitats depends on regular management, usually through grazing or mowing, but their species diversity is known to decline with increasing management intensity. The reduction of management intensity can be a useful tool for the long-term conservation of the biological diversity of grasslands. We analyzed floral and faunal diversity on intensively and extensively (unintensively) grazed pastures and on 5- to 10-year-old ungrazed grasslands in northern Germany. Each of the three grassland habitats differing in grazing intensity was replicated six times. We related diverse taxa such as grasshoppers, butterfly adults and lepidopteran larvae, and trap-nesting solitary bees and wasps to vegetation structure. There was an increase of species richness and abundance from pastures to ungrazed grasslands. The percentage of parasitism of the most abundant trap-nesting species, the digger-wasp (Trypoxylon figulus), was also higher on ungrazed grasslands. Decreased grazing on pastures enhanced species richness for adult butterflies only, whereas the abundance of adult butterflies, solitary bees and wasps, and their natural enemies increased. Although the differences in insect diversity between pastures and ungrazed grassland could be attributed to a greater vegetation height and heterogeneity (bottom-up effects) on ungrazed areas, the differences between intensively and extensively grazed pastures could not be explained by changes in vegetation characteristics. Hence, intensive grazing appeared to affect the insect communities through the disruption of plant-insect interactions. A mosaic of extensively grazed grassland and grassland left ungrazed for a few years may be a good means by which to maintain biodiversity and the strength of trophic interactions.

Revue / Journal Title

Conservation biology    ISSN  0888-8892   CODEN CBIOEF 

Source / Source

2002, vol. 16, no6, pp. 1570-1580 [11 page(s) (article)] (1 p.1/4)

Langue / Language

Anglais

Editeur / Publisher

Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, NJ, ETATS-UNIS  (1987) (Revue)

Mots-clés anglais / English Keywords

Hymenoptera

;

Aculeata

;

Apoidea

;

Orthoptera

;

Acridoidea

;

Europe

;

Invertebrata

;

Arthropoda

;

Chrysididae

;

Pompilidae

;

Sphecidae

;

Megachilidae

;

Lepidoptera

;

Acrididae

;

Germany

;

Species diversity

;

Biodiversity

;

Insecta

;

Animal community

;

Biological monitoring

;

Environment impact

;

Livestock

;

Browsing

;

Ecological damage

;

Pasture

;

Rangeland

;

Mots-clés français / French Keywords

Hymenoptera

;

Aculeata

;

Apoidea

;

Orthoptera

;

Acridoidea

;

Europe

;

Invertebrata

;

Arthropoda

;

Chrysididae

;

Pompilidae

;

Sphecidae

;

Megachilidae

;

Lepidoptera

;

Acrididae

;

Allemagne

;

Diversité espèces

;

Diversité biologique

;

Insecta

;

Communauté animale

;

Surveillance biologique

;

Impact environnement

;

Bétail

;

Broutage animal

;

Dégradation environnement

;

Pâture

;

Parcours(terrain)

;

Mots-clés espagnols / Spanish Keywords

Hymenoptera

;

Aculeata

;

Apoidea

;

Orthoptera

;

Acridoidea

;

Europa

;

Invertebrata

;

Arthropoda

;

Chrysididae

;

Pompilidae

;

Sphecidae

;

Megachilidae

;

Lepidoptera

;

Acrididae

;

Alemania

;

Diversidad especies

;

Diversidad biológica

;

Insecta

;

Comunidad animal

;

Vigilancia biológica

;

Impacto medio ambiente

;

Ganado

;

Pacedura

;

Degradación ecológica

;

Pastizal

;

Pastura(terreno)

;

Localisation / Location

INIST-CNRS, Cote INIST : 21333, 35400010570266.0150

Nº notice refdoc (ud4) : 14420971



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