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Titre du document / Document title

Comparison of methods for extraction of tobacco alkaloids

Auteur(s) / Author(s)

JONES Nadia M. (1) ; BERNARDO-GIL M. Gabriela (2) ; GRACA LOURENCO M. (3) ;

Affiliation(s) du ou des auteurs / Author(s) Affiliation(s)

(1) Centro de Investigação de Ciências Agrárías Tropicais, DAIAT, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisbon, PORTUGAL
(2) Centro de Engenharia Biológica e Química, DEQ, Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon, PORTUGAL
(3) Centro de Investigação de Ciências Agrárias Tropicais, DAIAT, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisbon, PORTUGAL

Résumé / Abstract

Ultrasound and microwave techniques were used to extract tobacco alkaloids, and response surface methodology was used to optimize extraction conditions. Ultrasonic technique factors were temperature, 30-85°C; time, 3-45 min; solvent volume, 8-80 mL. Microwave extraction factors were pressure, 15-75 psi; time, 3-40 min; power, 30-90% of the maximum magnetron power of 650 W. Soxhlet and solvent AOAC-modified extraction methods were also applied after some improvements. Nicotine, nornicotine, anabasine, and anatabine were quantified by gas chromatography. A steam distillation International Standards Organization method for total alkaloid evaluation was used as reference. The results obtained by the different methods were compared using a least squares deviation test. The ultrasonic and the proposed modified-AOAC extraction method were the more convenient with regard to practicability and precision. The relative deviations (n = 5) were as follows: For the ultrasonic method in low-level alkaloid tobaccos, 0.7% nicotine and 1.4-14% minor alkaloids; in high-level alkaloid tobaccos, 2.4% nicotine and 4.5-5.1% minor alkaloids. For the modified AOAC method in low-level alkaloid tobaccos, 0.9% nicotine and 2.4-11.6% minor alkaloids; and in high-level alkaloid tobaccos, 1.7% nicotine and 2.0-2.4% minor alkaloids.

Revue / Journal Title

Journal of AOAC International    ISSN  1060-3271 

Source / Source

2001, vol. 84, no2, pp. 309-316 (20 ref.)

Langue / Language

Anglais

Editeur / Publisher

AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD, ETATS-UNIS  (1992) (Revue)

Mots-clés anglais / English Keywords

Tobacco

;

Alkaloid

;

Extraction process

;

Ultrasonic method

;

Microwave

;

Optimization

;

Response surface

;

Nicotine

;

Quantitative analysis

;

Response Surface Methodology

;

Mots-clés français / French Keywords

Tabac

;

Alcaloïde

;

Procédé extraction

;

Méthode ultrasonore

;

Hyperfréquence

;

Optimisation

;

Surface réponse

;

Nicotine

;

Analyse quantitative

;

Méthodologie Surface Réponse

;

Mots-clés espagnols / Spanish Keywords

Tabaco

;

Alcaloide

;

Procedimiento extracción

;

Método ultrasonoro

;

Hiperfrecuencia

;

Optimización

;

Superficie respuesta

;

Nicotina

;

Análisis cuantitativo

;

Localisation / Location

INIST-CNRS, Cote INIST : 3254, 35400009809758.0010

Nº notice refdoc (ud4) : 1004673



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